Exterior facing

Mandianes Pavimentos, Parquets y Puertas - Exterior facingExterior facing

The exterior facing are surface or linales elements used in facade cladding (and can be used in facades, eaves, etc.).

Exceptionally they can contribute some additional characteristic like thermal or acoustic insulation.

During the western conquest the balloon frame construction system was developed in the USA.

It consisted of a light framework clad in facade of tinglated boards.

Despite its provisional nature, it was possible to verify its efficiency and its durability, which could be prolonged for years with adequate maintenance.

The paneling has lasted and is still used but the coating materials have evolved much in parallel to the exterior adhesives and composites in the search for more efficient materials and with little or no maintenance.

Composite materials (especially wood-plastic) have been developed in North America, while in Europe, new processed products (heat-treated wood, oleothermic wood, etc.) have been worked on in Europe; While in Spain the special boards of high density and those of impregnated fibers have had an extraordinary success.

Depending on their shape they can be linales (or lamas) and superficial (boards or panels).

Its surface can be smooth or in relief, presenting different machining depending on the drawing that you want to obtain in facade.

There are different materials for the exterior coating:

Solid wood is the most classical material for linear elements but, depending on the species, it can present problems of durability and therefore requires a treatment or a protective finish (an open pore paint or lasur).

Laminated wood is used in the form of ‘slices’ of larger pieces of laminated wood with exterior adhesives. The wood can be treated or of sufficient natural durability.

Treated wood, wood whose natural durability against biotic agents (fungi and xylophagous insects) has been improved by the introduction of protective products or by the application of external treatments such as heat and other systems.

Plywood boards, plywood boards as a substitute for the decking began to be used in facades since the 1940s.
They were grooved boards by means of an overpressure that imitated the classic paneling and allows different textures: rough ones such as sawn or brushed and others, smooth, embossed, or with an overlay layer of special average density for painting.

Of course, these boards require a phenolic bonding resistant to the exterior, an improved finish and a special attention to the edges, which is the weakest point against humidity.
The finish requires different degrees of protection: opaque dye, highly pigmented (which only shows the wood texture and darkens the knots) or oil-based paint or latex emulsion.
These finishes, applied in factory or in work, have a great uniformity in the time and a prolonged maintenance.
If necessary, it is treated in autoclave with pressure protectors, with the extreme fibers of the sealed edges going.
Its weight is light, which makes it easy to handle especially when it is sold in slats format, with straight edges or bevelled, and lengths up to 4880 mm and widths of 305 mm and thicknesses between 8.5 mm and 16 mm.
Also they are used in format of plates where in each case the constructive detail of the songs, overlaps, drips, etc. must be solved in each case.
The most commonly used species are Oregon pine and Southern pine.
To put it in work, the usual board must be kept in this type of boards: 3 mm.

High density plywood boards, taking advantage of the good properties of plywood and in an attempt to endow it with a protection to the outside, developed high density plywood.
In this case, in addition to gluing the sheets, the phenolic adhesive completely impregnates the veneer with a process of temperature and pressure approximating a certain ‘vitrification’ of the board.
For this reason it can be placed on the facade with a high confidence margin (in theory it could only give problems of compatibility with fittings producing stains, etc.).
In Spain has had a spectacular use since the 1980s, unparalleled in other countries. Among the leading manufacturers, there are two Spanish and one Italian.

Phenolic laminated boards, the bakelized phenolic laminated board looks similar to the previous one and is made by the same companies, but it is a totally different product.
It consists of a core of wood fibers or paper treated with phenolic resins thermoset and compressed at high pressures and temperatures with faces of veneer of wood or other material.
The finish is punched when going outside. Bakelite is a phenolic resin that is transformed into thermoset plastic (it was invented in 1909).

In both cases (high density plywood and bakelized) boards are fixed on a structure of wood or metal (usually the latter).

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